Water resources and system of the River Yesil (ISHIM) under conditions of active anthropogenous transformation and climate change


This paper considers the features of the formation of the water resources and the system of the transboundary River Yesil/Ishim (the left tributary of the River Irtysh), the sources and the formation zone of most of the flow of which are located in Kazakhstan, the transit zone and the inflow into the Irtysh river in Russia. Initial hydrological information was taken from published data for the years 1932-2017; and for the period 2008-2017 monitoring data gathered from gauging stations controlled by the RSE Kazgidromet of the Ministry of Energy of Kazakhstan. 
Research confirms a pronounced irregularity in the flow of the Yesil River over the long-term, with sequences of high and low-water years. In terms of the volume of annual flow, the difference between these years can be as much as 200% to 300%. There is an uneven distribution of the runoff from the River Yesil during the year, during which the river system is characterized by a pronounced short flood and a very low low-water level.
The entire river is characterized by the almost simultaneous onset of flood; but from the data gathered downstream there is a temporary shift in the peak of the flood and a slight increase in its duration. At the same time, the analysis shows that over the past twenty-five years there has been a tendency for the flood to shift to earlier dates; a decrease in its duration; and an increase in runoff. In addition to the influence of climatic factors on the runoff and system of the River Yesil, qualitative and quantitative changes in the hydrological characteristics are shown, taking into account the regulatory activity of large reservoirs.
In general, an increase in the use of surface-water resources and unproductive losses exacerbate the situation with their lack in low-water years, with the greatest shortage of water resources in the upper part of the Yesil’s basin.


  • Abishev IA, Medeu AR, Malkovskiy IM, Toleubayeva LS (2016) Water resources of Kazakhstan and their use. Water resources of Central Asia and their use. In: Materials of International Scientific-Practical Conference devoted to the summing-up of the “Water for Life” decade declared by the United Nations. Almaty, Kazakhstan, September 22–24, 2016; Krivobokova T.N.; Almaty, Kazakhstan, 3: 4-15. (In Russian)
  • Alimkulov SK, Dzhundibayev AE, Dostai ZhD, Tursunov AA (2010) Hydrography and water regime of rivers. In Republic of Kazakhstan, Natural conditions and resources, 2nd ed. Medeu AR. Almaty, Kazakhstan, 1: 237-241. (In Russian)
  • Andreyanov VG (1960) Annual distribution of river flow. Gidrometeoizdat. (In Russian)
  • Annual bulletin of monitoring the state and climate change of Kazakhstan: 2017. Department of Energy. Republican state enterprise “Kazgidromet”. Astana, 2018. 60 p.
  • Annual data on the regime and resources of surface land waters, 2016. Vol.2. Basil of the river Esil. State Water Cadastre of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Astana, 2018. 194 p.
  • Arystambekova D, Davletgaliev S, Chigrinets A, Mussina A, Jussupbekov D (2017) Estimation of Spring Runoff Characteristics of Lowland Rivers in Kazakhstan. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism, 8(1 (17)).
  • Bultekov NU, Eserkepova IB, Kozhakhmetov PJ, Pimankina NV, Severskiy IV (2010) Climate, Agroclimatic resourses. In Atlas of Republic of Kazakhstan. Natural conditions and resourses. Medeu AR. Almaty, Kazakhstan, 1: 57-71.
  • Chigrinets LY (2009) Determination of design hydrological characteristics with the use of a personal computer. Almaty: KazSU. (In Russian)
  • Chyginets AG, Arystambekova DD (2017) Assessment of the flow characteristics of the spring flood of the lowland rivers of Kazakhstan on the example of the river basin. Yesil. Hydrometeorology and Ecology, (1): 62-74.
  • Danilov-Danilyan VI, Losev KS (2006) Water consumption: environmental, economic, social and political aspects. Science. (In Russian)
  • Davledgaliyev SK, Moldahmetov MM, Mahmudova LK, Chigrinets AG (2012). Water resources of Kazakhstan. Assessment, forecast, management. Resources of river runoff in Kazakhstan. Galprin RI. Almaty, Kazakhstan, 7(1): 40-41. (In Russian).
  • Davletgaliev SK (1992) Flow Distribution Curves. Study Guide. Almaty: KazSU. (In Russian)
  • Davletgaliev SK (1998) Mathematical methods for processing hydrological data. Almaty: KazSU. (In Russian)
  • Dehkordi AAE, Jahangiri A, Talaiekhozani A, Heidari A (2018) Pilot-Scale Evaluation of CO2 Loading Capacity in AMP Aqueous Solution beside the Improvers HMDA-NH3 under a Series of Operational Conditions. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 6(4): 74-80.
  • Demiral G, Çolakoğlu MK, Kalcan S, Pergel A (2018) An incarcerated Amyand’s hernia: Shall we apply appendectomy routinely?. J Clin Exp Invest., 9(1): 48-9. https://doi.org/10.5799/jcei.413076
  • Frolova NL, Ivanovskaya VV (2015) Features of water use in conditions of water resources deficit (on the example of the Ishim river). Water economy of Russia: problems, technologies, management, 2: 4-19.
  • General scheme of integrated use and protection of water resources. Approved by the Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of April 8, 2016, № 200 (In Russian).
  • Gvozdetsky NA (ed.) (1973) Physical and geographical zoning of the Tyumen region. Moscow State University. (Altas, Tyumen Oblast, issue 1. Main Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography at the Council of Ministers of the USSR, Moscow-Tyumen, 1971, 171 p.
  • Hosseini Naghavi AB, Alishah O, Gorji AM (2019) Investigation of the Genetic Diversity of Cultivars and Lines of Tetraploid Cottons by the use of Quantitative Morphologic Properties of Fibers. Medbiotech Journal, 03(02): 65-9.
  • Hosseinzadeh K, Ghayebzadeh M, Shahi M, Hosseini Z (2019) Polymer Induced Flocculation for Treatment of a Tile Factory Wastewater using Polyacrylamide (PAM): Optimization by Response Surface Methodological Analysis. Medbiotech Journal, 03(02): 70-6.
  • Kazakhstan UNDP (2004) Water resources of Kazakhstan in the new millennium.
  • Magritsky DV (2014) River flow and hydrological calculations: practical work with the implementation of computer programs. Retrieved from Triumph: www.triumph.ru
  • Moon JH, Kong MH, Oh YH, Kim HJ (2018) Effect of sleep duration on muscle mass in Korean nonelderly adults. European Journal of General Medicine, 15(2): em03. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/81763
  • Mustafaev Z, Kozukeev A, Kalachova A, Kireicheva L (2018) The influence of climate on the hydrological regime of the catchment basin of the Esil river. International technical and economic journal, (5): 110-111.
  • Plekhanov PA, Medeu N (2019) Extreme Hydrological Phenomena in the Esil River Basin: Genesis, General Patterns of Manifestation. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 20(7): 187-195. https://doi.org/10.12911/22998993/109880
  • Rahman Z, Vaheed S (2018) Colonization and Optimization of Some Fungal Mycelium through Metal Biosorbent. Medbiotech Journal, 02(03): 103-7.
  • Recommendations for the calculation. The main hydrological characteristics in case of nonstationarity of time series, due to the influence of climatic factors. STO GGI 52.08.41-2017. St. Petersburg. FSBI “MGI” 2017. (In Russian)
  • Resources of surface waters of virgin and fallow lands. Issue 1. Akmola region of the Kazakh SSR. Ed. Uryvaev. Hydrometeoizdat. Leningrad, 1958. p. 26-32 (In Russian)
  • Seventh national communication and third biennial report of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the framework convention on climate change. Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, United Nations Development Programme in Kazakhstan, Global Environment Facility. Agabekov O. Astana, Kazakhstan, 2017.
  • Shiklomanova IA (ed.) (2008) Water resources of Russia and their use. SPb .: State Hydrological Institute. (In Russian)
  • Surface and groundwater resources their use and quality, 2017. (2018) State water cadastre. Annual edition, Astana, Almaty, 2010-2018 (In Russian)
  • Surface water resources in areas of virgin and fallow lands. Issue 5. North Kazakhstan region. Ed. Uryvaev. Hydrometeoizdat. Leningrad, 1960. p 23-24.
  • Veshkurtseva TM (2010) Transformation of the water regime of the Tobol and Ishim rivers under anthropogenic influence. Bulletin of Tyumen state University. Ecology and nature management, (7): 130-137.
  • Weather and Climate. Retrieved on 3 March 2019 from http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/
  • Yunussova G, Mosiej J (2016) Transboundary water management priorities in Central Asia countries–Tobol River case study in Kazakhstan. Journal of water and land development, 31(1): 157-167. (In Russian) https://doi.org/10.1515/jwld-2016-0047
  • Zaikov BD (1954) Outstanding floods and floods on the rivers of the USSR for historical time. Gidrometeoizdat.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.