Eurasian Journal of Biosciences

The fluoride and calcium effect of drink water on dental caries prevalence in children of 6-8 years old (Observational research in Bangkalan regency)


Background: In Indonesia, caries is one of many dental and oral health problems which has a high incidence rate. Caries prevalence, according to Riskesdas (2013), is 1.4%. This figure is higher than the target aimed by WHO aimed, which is a caries index (DMFT-T) of 1%. Caries experience sufferers increased by 5.1% from 67.2% in 2007 to 72.3% in 2013. About 60-90% of school children have cavities which often cause pain and discomfort.
Aim: This research aims to determine the relationship of Fluoride and Calcium levels in drinking water to dental caries in children of 6-8 years in the city of Bangkalan.
Method: This study is a community-based observational analytic study. This study uses a cross-sectional design.
Results: During the test of the levels of fluoride and calcium in the urban area – precisely in SDN Demangan 01 – the result of the fluoride level was 0.058 mg/dL, and the calcium one was 103.3 mg/dL. During the test of the levels of fluoride and calcium in the coastal area – precisely at SDN Pangeranan 05 – the result of the fluoride level was 0.072 mg/dL, and the calcium one was 168.1 mg/dL.
Conclusion: People’s behavior is an important factor in caries increment besides fluoride and calcium. Predisposing factors in the study led to an increase and treatment among the two research sites.


  • Alm, A. (2008). On dental caries and caries-related factors in children and teenagers. Inst of Odontology. Dept of Cariology.
  • Almatsier, S., Gizi, P.D.I.(2009). Basic Principles of Nutritional Sciences. Jakarta PT Gramedia Main Libr.
  • Apsari, R., Pratomo, D. A., Hikmawati, D., & Bidin, N. (2016, March). Microstructure and mechanical changes induced by Q-Switched pulse laser on human enamel with aim of caries prevention. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1718, No. 1, p. 020001). AIP Publishing LLC.
  • Chattopadhyay, A., Podder, S., Agarwal, S., & Bhattacharya, S. (2011). Fluoride-induced histopathology and synthesis of stress protein in liver and kidney of mice. Archives of toxicology, 85(4), 327-335.
  • Eda Nur, A. Y. A. R., Ahmet, A. Y. A. R., & Siçramaz, H. (2016). The Evaluation of Some Dietary Fiber Rich by-Products in Ice Creams Made from the Traditional Pudding-Kesme Muhallebi. Journal of Food Technology Research, 3(2), 105-109.
  • Hall, A., & Girkin, J. M. (2004). A review of potential new diagnostic modalities for caries lesions. Journal of dental research, 83(1_suppl), 89-94.
  • Hariyadi, D. M., Hendradi, E., Kusumawati, I., Maindra, H. M. C., & Azzahra, F. (2016). Evaluation of the Antibody Response and Uptake of Ca-Alginate Microspheres Containing Model Antigen After Oral Immunization. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 8(2), 151-157.
  • Hariyadi, D. M., Purwanti, T., & Wardani, D. (2016). Stability of freeze-dried ovalbumin-alginate microspheres with different lyoprotectants. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 9(1), 20-26.
  • Hartiningrum, I., & Fitriyah, N. (2018). Bayi Berat Lahir Rendah (BBLR) di Provinsi Jawa Timur Tahun 2012-2016. Jurnal Biometrika dan Kependudukan, 7(2), 97-104.
  • Kidd, E. A., & Bechal, S. J. (2012). Dasar-dasar Karies penyakit dan Penanggulangan. Jakarta: Buku Kedokteran EGC, 2.
  • KKR, I. (2013). Badan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan. Ris Kesehat Dasar.
  • Markovic, M., Takagi, S., Chow, L. C., & Frukhtbeyn, S. (2009). Calcium fluoride precipitation and deposition from 12 mmol/L fluoride solutions with different calcium addition rates. Journal of research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 114(5), 293.
  • Mashabi, N. A. A., Djoharnas, H., & Darwita, R. R. (2008). Hubungan antara status gizi dengan karies gigi pada murid-murid di sekolah dasar Kecamatan Karangantu. Journal of Dentistry Indonesia, 12(1), 5-9.
  • Nasution, A. M. T., Noerjanto, B., & Triwanto, L. (2008, October). Development of an inexpensive optical method for studies of dental erosion process in vitro. In Ninth International Symposium on Laser Metrology (Vol. 7155, p. 71551O). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
  • Pawar, D., & Garten, L. (2010). Pain management in children. Guide to Pain Management in Low-Resource Settings, 255.
  • Pemerintah, P., & OTONOM, K. P. S. D. (2001). Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 82 Tahun 2001. Tentang Pengelolaan Kualitas Air dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Air.
  • Sabir, A., Mooduto, L., Kaelan, C., & Horax, S. (2016). Impact of the Use of Ethanolic Extract of Propolis, Flavonoid and Non-Flavonoid Propolis for Direct Pulp Capping in Collagen Type I Density. Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences, 15(4), 264-268.
  • Srivastava, N., Gupta, G., & Rana, V. (2013). A comparative evaluation of efficacy of different teaching methods of tooth brushing in children contributors. Journal of Oral Hygiene & Health, 1-4.
  • Wandrivel, R., Suharti, N., & Lestari, Y. (2012). Kualitas air minum yang diproduksi depot air minum isi ulang di Kecamatan Bungus Padang berdasarkan persyaratan mikrobiologi. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas, 1(3).
  • Wong, M. C. M., Lu, H. X., & Lo, E. C. M. (2012). Caries increment over 2 years in preschool children: a life course approach. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 22(2), 77-84.
  • World Health Organization. (2013). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2013: enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. World Health Organization.
  • Zafar, S., Harnekar, S. Y., & Siddiqi, A. (2009). Early childhood caries: etiology, clinical considerations, consequences and management. Int Dent SA, 11(4), 24-36.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.