Eurasian Journal of Biosciences

The effects of oral dosage of glutathione and some biological agents on immunity and oxidative stress parameters in male rats induced with immunosuppression
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 2, pp. 2933-2939
  • Published Online: 16 Sep 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)


Objective: The research was aimed to determine the effects of glutathione extracts and some biological agents on immune and oxidative stress parameters in male rats induced Immunosuppression used Sandimmune. Methods: Glutathione was extract from spinach leaves and estimated the concentration used a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined the effect of orally dosage at one mg/ml alone or with both Zinc or Vit C or cell concentration of Lactobacillus plantarum (CCLP) on the immunity and biological parameters of male rats induced Immunosuppression used Sandimmune and breeding for 28 days. Results: The results indicated that aqueous spinach extract was contained glutathione at a concentration of 246 µg/g in the case of extraction using aqueous extract. The Immunosuppression induced was significantly (p<0.05) decreased of IgA, IgG and IgM values and became at 1022, 2031 and 121.5 mg/dl respectively compared with the control rats group which at 1564, 3206 and 174.7 mg/dl respectively while the orally dosage from biological parameters was caused in amelioration of immunity parameters to became similar of values with the control rats group. Also the oxidative stress parameters value as GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase enzyme were significantly decreased to 222, 0.17, 375 and 0.31µmol/L respectively and increased in MDA value to 4.6 µmol/L compared with the rats in control group, and the used of glutathione alone or with the biological parameters were done improvement to similar values in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral dosage of glutathione alone or with biological agents was significantly effective in improving immunity and decreasing the oxidative stress values in the laboratory rats that induced immunosuppression.


  • Advani, R., Horwitz, S., Zelenetz, A., & Horning, S. J. (2007). Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma: treatment experience with cyclosporine. Leukemia & lymphoma, 48(3), 521-525.
  • Allen, J., & Bradley, R. D. (2011). Effects of oral glutathione supplementation on systemic oxidative stress biomarkers in human volunteers. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(9), 827-833.
  • Ballatori, N., Krance, S. M., Notenboom, S., Shi, S., Tieu, K., & Hammond, C. L. (2009). Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases. Biological chemistry, 390(3), 191-214.
  • Breitkreutz, R., Pittack, N., Nebe, C., Schuster, D., Brust, J., Beichert, M., ... & Dröge, W. (2000). Improvement of immune functions in HIV infection by sulfur supplementation: two randomized trials. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 78(1), 55-62.
  • Dewanjee, S., Dua, T. K., Khanra, R., Das, S., Barma, S., Joardar, S., ... & Jaafar, H. Z. (2015). Water spinach, Ipomoea aquatic (Convolvulaceae), ameliorates lead toxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis. PloS one, 10(10), e0139831.
  • Douer, D., Chaimoff, C., Pick, A. I., & Pinkhas, J. (1981). Serum immunoglobulin levels in splenectomized Hodgkin patients and in subjects following post-traumatic splenectomy. Oncology, 38(3), 165-167.
  • Dröge, W., & Breitkreutz, R. (2000). Glutathione and immune function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 59(4), 595-600.
  • Duncan, B., (1955). A methodological Analysis of Segregation Indexes. American Sociological Review, 20(2): 210-217.
  • Franco, R., Panayiotidis, M. I., & Cidlowski, J. A. (2007). Glutathione depletion is necessary for apoptosis in lymphoid cells independent of reactive oxygen species formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282(42), 30452-30465.
  • genannt Bonsmann, S. S., Walczyk, T., Renggli, S., & Hurrell, R. F. (2008). Oxalic acid does not influence nonhaem iron absorption in humans: a comparison of kale and spinach meals. European journal of clinical nutrition, 62(3), 336-341.
  • Islam, M. A., Al Mamun, M. A., Faruk, M., Islam, M. T. U., Rahman, M. M., Alam, M. N., ... & Alam, M. A. (2017). Astaxanthin ameliorates hepatic damage and oxidative stress in carbon tetrachloride-administered rats. Pharmacognosy research, 9(Suppl 1), S84.
  • Kasperczyk, S., Dobrakowski, M., Kasperczyk, A., Ostałowska, A., & Birkner, E. (2013). The administration of N-acetylcysteine reduces oxidative stress and regulates glutathione metabolism in the blood cells of workers exposed to lead. Clinical Toxicology, 51(6), 480-486.
  • Lin, X., Xia, Y., Wang, G., Yang, Y., Xiong, Z., Lv, F., ... & Ai, L. (2018). Lactic acid bacteria with antioxidant activities alleviating oxidized oil induced hepatic injury in mice. Frontiers in microbiology, 9, 2684.
  • Martínez-Holguín, E., Lledó-García, E., Rebollo-Román, Á., González-García, J., Jara-Rascón, J., & Hernández-Fernández, C. (2020). Antioxidants to Improve Sperm Quality. Male and Sperm Factors that Maximize IVF Success, 106.
  • Muryanto, M., Alvin, Nurdin, M., Hanifah, U., & Sudiyani, Y. (2017, November). Extraction of glutathione from EFB fermentation waste using methanol with sonication process. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1904, No. 1, p. 020011). AIP Publishing LLC.
  • Nasif, Z. N. (2002). Molecular Characterization & Determinating The Level Of Oxidative Stress & Some Antioxidants In Iraqi Women With Breast Tumors.
  • Nocttor G.; Qucval G.; Muhamdi A.; Chaouch S. and Foyer C.H. (2011). Glotathionic. In: Arabidopsis book. American Society of Plant Biologists. Rockvillc, MD, pp142.
  • Obinna-Echem, P. C., & Chukunda, F. A. (2018). Nutrient Composition of Mushroom: Pleurotus Ostreatus (Jacaum, ex. Fr. Kummer) grown on Different Agricultural Wastes. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research, 5(1), 1-5.
  • Oborilová, A., Mayer, J., Korístek, Z., Hofmanová, Z., Vásová, I., Navrátil, M., ... & Matuska, M. (2004). Evaluation of the clinical effectivity and toxicity of the FDN regimen (fludarabin, mitoxantron, dexamethason) in patients with follicular lymphoma. Casopis lekaru ceskych, 143(10), 685-690.
  • Omodeo-Salè, F., Basilico, N., Folini, M., Olliaro, P., & Taramelli, D. (1998). Macrophage populations of different origins have distinct susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation induced by β‐haematin (malaria pigment). FEBS letters, 433(3), 215-218.
  • Saleh, J., Edeas, M., & Van Goor, H. (2019). Antioxidant Supplements and Oxidative Stress: The debate extends to the Middle East. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 19(3), e177.
  • SAS, J. (2012). Statistical Analysis System, v. 10.0. 2. Cary, North Carolina. USA.
  • Sonani, R. R., Rastogi, R. P., & Madamwar, D. (2015). Antioxidant potential of phycobiliproteins: Role in anti-aging research. Biochem Anal Biochem, 4(172), 2161-1009.
  • Sumalatha, D. (2013). Antioxidant and antitumor activity of Phyllanthus emblica in colon cancer cell lines. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci, 2, 189-195.
  • Tahir, I., Khan, M. R., Shah, N. A., & Aftab, M. (2016). Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and amelioration of pulmonary fibrosis with Phyllanthus emblica leaves. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 16(1), 406.
  • Testa, B., Testa, D., Mesolella, M., D’Errico, G., Tricarico, D., & Motta, G. (2001). Management of chronic otitis media with effusion: the role of glutathione. The Laryngoscope, 111(8), 1486-1489.
  • Tietz, Y., (2005). Clinical Biochemistry, 6thed., McGraw –Hill, New York.825.
  • Wang, W., & Ballatori, N. (1998). Endogenous glutathione conjugates: occurrence and biological functions. Pharmacological reviews, 50(3), 335-356.
  • Wang, Y.; Wu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Xu, H.; Mei, X.; Yu, D.; Wang, Y. and Li, W. (2017). Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria. Nutrients, Vol., 9, 521-536.
  • Whaley-Connell, A., McCullough, P. A., & Sowers, J. R. (2019). The role of oxidative stress in the metabolic syndrome. Reviews in cardiovascular medicine, 12(1), 21-29.
  • Wood, S.K. (2020). The role of inflammation and oxidative stress in depression and cardiovascular disease. In Cardiovascular Implications of Stress and Depression (pp. 175-209). Academic Press.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.