Abstract

Methanolic extracts were obtained from 30 parts of 23 different plants belonging to 19 families. Most of the plants are used traditionally to treat different illnesses in Sudan. The extracts were screened for their biological activities against bacterial pathogens including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae and two animal viruses representing two viral families, Newcastle Disease and Fowlpox Viruses. In addition, the extracts were evaluated for the presence of the major secondary metabolites classes. The highest activity recorded was obtained for Zizyphus spina-christi against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. Seven of the tested extracts, showed virucidal activity of NDV while eight plant extracts exhibited high activity against replication of PV. Our results support, at least in part, the uses of most plants in ethnopharmacological claims.

References

  • Ali NAA, Jülich WD, Kusnick C, Lindequist V (2001) Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and c y t o t o x i c activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 74, 173-179.
  • Ali H, König GM, Khalid SA, Wright AD, Kaminsky R (2002) Evaluation of selected Sudanese medicinal plants for their in v i t ro activity against hemoflagellates, selected bacteria, HIV-1-RT and tyrosine kinase inhibitory, and for cytotoxicity . Journal of Ethnopharmacology 83, 219-228.
  • Al-Magboul AZ, Farouk A, Bashir AK, Karim A, Salih AM (1985) Antimicrobial activity of certain Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine: screening for antibacterial activity (II). Fitoterapia 56, 103-109.
  • Al-Magboul AZ, Bashir AK, Salih A M , Farouk A, Khalid SA (1988) Antimicrobial activity of certain Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine: screening for antibacterial activity (V). Fitoterapia 59, 5 7 - 6 2.
  • Bajpai SK, Chandra K (1990) Studies on the antiviral properties of plants w i t h special reference to Zingiber capitatum. Fitoterpia 6 1 , 3-8.
  • Dirar HA (1984) Kawal, meat substitute f r om fermented Cassia obtusifolia leaves. Economic Botany 38, 3 4 2 - 3 4 9.
  • Elamin MH (2008) Chemotaxonomic profiling of flavonoids of t w o Abutilon spp. (Hambuk). MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum, Khartoum.
  • Elegami A A , Al Magboul AZ, Omer ME, El Tohami MS (2001) Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine: screening for antibacterial activity. Fitoterapia 7 2 , 8 1 0 - 8 1 7.
  • El Ghazali GE (1986) Medicinal plants of the Sudan. Part I. Medicinal plants of the Erkowit Red Sea Hills, Eastern Sudan. Khartoum University Press, Sudan.
  • El Ghazali GB, El Tohami MS, Elegami AB (1994) Medicinal plants of the Sudan. Part III. Medicinal plants of the White Nile province. Khartoum University Press, Sudan.
  • El Ghazali GB, El Tohami MS, Elegami AB, Abdalla WS, Mohammed MG (1997) Medicinal plants of the Sudan. Part IV. Medicinal plants of Northern Kordofan. Omdurman Islamic University Press, Sudan.
  • El-Hamidi A (1970) Drug plants of the Sudan Republic in native medicine. Planta Medica 3, 2 7 9 - 2 8 0 .
  • El Kamali HM, El Khalifa KF (1997) Treatment of malaria through herbal drugs in the Central Sudan. Fitoterapia 68, 5 2 7 - 5 2 8.
  • El Kamali HM, El Khalifa KF (1999) Folk medicinal plants of riverside forests of the southern Blue Nile d i s t r i c t , Sudan. Fitoterapia 7 0 , 4 9 3 - 4 9 7.
  • El Kamali HM, Khalid SA (1996) The most common herbal remedies in Central Sudan. Fitoterapia 5 7 , 3 0 1 - 3 0 6.
  • EL-Kamali HH (2009) Ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants used in North Kordofan (Western Sudan). Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13, 8 9 - 9 7.
  • El Khalifa KF, Ibrahim MA, El Ghazali G (2006) A survey of medicinal uses of Gash Delta vegetation, Eastern Sudan. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 13, 1-6.
  • El Siddig K, Ebert G, Luedders P (1999) Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) a review on a multipurpose tree w i t h promising future i n the Sudan. Angewandte Botanik 7 3 , 2 0 2 - 2 0 5.
  • El Tahir A, Ibrahim A, Satti GMH, Theander TG, Kharazmi A, Khalid SA (1998) The potential antileishmanial activity of some Sudanese medicinal plants. Phytotherapy Research 12, 576 - 579.
  • El Tahir A, Satti GMH, Khalid SA (1999) Antiplasmodial activity of selected Sudanese plants w i t h emphasis on Acacia nilotica. Phytotherapy Research 13, 4 7 4 - 4 7 8.
  • El Tahir A, Satti GMH, Khalid SA (1999) Antiplasmodial activity of Sudanese plants w i th special emphasis on Maytenus senegalensis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 64, 227 -233.
  • Emori TC, Gaynes R (1993). An overview of nosocomial infections, including the role of the microbiology laboratory. Clinical Microbial Review 6, 4 2 8 - 4 4 2.
  • Gessler MC, Nkunya MHH, Mwasumbi LB, Heinrick M, Tanner M (1994) Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for antimalarial activity. A c t a Tropica 56, 65-77.
  • Harborne JB (1973) Phytochemical Methods. Halsted Press. New York.
  • Hudson JB, Graham EA, Towers GHN (1994) Antiviral assay on phytochemicals: the influence of reaction parameters. Planta Medica 6 0 , 3 2 9 - 3 3 2.
  • Hussein A (1982) Molluscicidal properties of Acacia nilotica. Planta Medica 46, 181-183.
  • Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kawahata T, Otake T (1999) Inhibitory effect of Sudanese plant extracts on HIV-1 Replication and HIV-1 Protease. Phytotherapy Research 13, 3 1 - 3 6.
  • Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kakiuchi N, Shimotohno K (2000) Inhibitory e f f e c t s of Sudanese Medicinal Plant Extracts on Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Protease. Phytotherapy Research 14, 5 1 0 - 5 1 6.
  • Ibrahim NA, El-Gengaihi S, El- Hamidi A, Bashandy SAE (1995) Chemical and biological evaluation of Tamarindus indica growing in Sudan. In: Svoboda KP, Laughlin JC, Brown VE, Proceedings of the ISHS A c t a Horticulture 3 9 0 International Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 1st November 1995, Kyoto, Japan, 51-58.
  • Kavanagh F (1972) Analytical microbiology. Academic press, New York, London.
  • Khalid SA, Farouk A, Geary TG, Jensen JB (1986) Potential antimalarial candidates f r om African plant an in vitro approach using Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 15, 2 0 1 - 2 0 9 .
  • McCutcheon AR, Ellis SM, Hancock REW, Towers GHN (1992) A n t i b i o t i c screening of medicinal plants of the British Columbian native people. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37, 213-2 2 3 .
  • Munro MHG, Luibrand RT, Blent JW (1987) The search for antiviral and anticancer compounds f r om marine organisms. In: Scheur PJ (ed.), Bioorganic marine chemistry, Springer Verliag, Berlin, 9 3 - 1 7 6.
  • Nimri LF, Meqdam MM, Alkofahi A (1999) Antibacterial activity of Jordanian medicinal plants. Pharmaceutical Biology 37, 1 9 6 - 2 0 1.
  • Rajabhandari M, Wegner U, Jülich M, Schipke T, Mentel R (2001) Screening of Nepalese plants for antiviral activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 74, 2 5 1 - 2 5 5.
  • Suliman SH, El Mahdi B, Abuelgasim A (2008) The effect of feeding Coriandrum sativum f r u i ts powder on the plasma lipids profile in cholesterol fed rats. Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 3, 24-28
  • Vanden Berghe DA, Vlietinck A J , Van Hoof L (1986) Plant products as potential antiviral agents. Bulletin de I ' I n s t i t u t Pasteur 84, 101-147.
  • Vlietinck A J , Vanden Berghe DA (1991) Can ethnopharmacology contribute to the development of antiviral drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 3 2 , 141-153.
  • Vlietinck A J , DeBruyne T, Vanden Berghe DA (1997) Plant substances as antiviral agents. Current Organic Chemistry 1, 3 0 7 - 3 4 4.

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.