Eurasian Journal of Biosciences

Microbial study of Trichophyton rubrum isolated from various Tinea infections
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 2, pp. 2553-2558
  • Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)


Dermatophytes infections, especially those affecting the keratinized tissues, are a major concern worldwide and are increasing on a global scale. Dermatophytosis is an infection of the skin, hair, and nails as a result of colonization of the Keratin layers in the body. The factors causing dermatomycosis are classified in three distorted genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This study was aimed to isolate and identify Trichiphyton rubrum from different Tinea infection using morphological features including scanning electron microscope examination and to evaluate its sensitivity towards several antifungal drugs. Seventy-three Tinea infections specimens were included in this study. All the clinical specimens were cultured onto sabouraud dextrose agar plates and potato dextrose agar plates and identified using cultural and microscopic features. The positive specimens for Trichiphyton rubrum were tested for susceptibility towards different antifungal drugs. The results showed that from all the clinical specimens (73), included in this study 25 (34.2%) were positive for Trichiphyton rubrum. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical type of Trichiphyton rubrum infection with incidence of 9 (36%). All of the Trichiphyton rubrum isolates were sensitive to Nystatin (NS 100 IU), Amphotericin-B (AP 100 IU) and Itraconazole (IT 10µg), and resistant to Clotrimazole (CC 10µg), Ketoconazole (KT 10µg), and Fluconazole (FLC 10µg). In Conclusion Tinea corporis is the most dermatophytosis caused by Trichiphyton rubrum and Nystatin is the most effective antifungal drug towered it.


  • Ajello L (1968) A taxonomic review of the dermatophytes and related species Sabouraudia, 6(2), 147–159
  • Ameen M (2010) Epidemiology of superficial fungal infections Clinics in dermatology, 28(2), 197–201
  • Anupama A (2017) Isolation and Identification of Dermatophytes from Clinical Samples – One Year Study IntJCurrMicrobiolAppSci 6(11): 1276-1281.
  • Chen, B K, and Friedlander, S F (2001) Tinea capitis update: a continuing conflict with an old adversary Current opinion in pediatrics, 13(4), 331–335
  • Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2004) Method for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts: approved guidance M44-A National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pa, USA.
  • Coelho, L M, Aquino-Ferreira, R, Maffei, C M, and Martinez-Rossi, N M (2008) In vitro antifungal drug susceptibilities of dermatophytes microconidia and arthroconidia The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 62(4), 758–761
  • Coloe, S, and Baird, R (2010) Dermatophyte infections in Melbourne: Trends from 1961/64 to 2008/09 The Australasian journal of dermatology, 51(4), 258–262.
  • Dahl M V (1994) Dermatophytosis and the immune response Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 31(3 Pt 2), S34–S41
  • Emmons, C W (1934) Dermatophytes: natural groupings based on the form of the spores and accessory organs Arch Dermatol Syphilol, 30:337–362.
  • Emmons, CW, Bindford, CH, Utz, JP and Kwon- Chung, KL (1977( Dermatophytoses Medical Mycology, 3rd Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 117-167.
  • Fernández-Torres, B, Carrillo, A J, Martín, E, Del Palacio, A, Moore, M K, Valverde, A, Serrano, M, and Guarro, J (2001) In vitro activities of 10 antifungal drugs against 508 dermatophyte strains Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 45(9), 2524–2528
  • Gherbawy Y, Voigt K, Ferenczy L Molecular identification of fungi: Springer; 2010.
  • Goa, Y. (2015). Performance evaluation and adaptation of lentil varieties in lemu, gumur and damot gale districts of southern Ethiopia. Current research in agricultural sciences, 2(2), 53-59.
  • Gurgel, L A, Sidrim, J J, Martins, D T, Cechinel Filho, V, and Rao, V S (2005) In vitro antifungal activity of dragon’s blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes Journal of ethnopharmacology, 97(2), 409–412
  • Jagdish, C (1995) Dermatophytosis Medical Mycology, 1st Etdition, pp106-107.
  • Kaushik, N, Pujalte, G G, and Reese, S T (2015) Superficial Fungal Infections Primary care, 42(4), 501–516
  • López-Martínez, R, Manzano-Gayosso, P, Mier, T, Méndez-Tovar, L J, and Hernández-Hernández, F (1994) Exoenzimas de dermatofitos aislados de tiñas agudas y crónicas [Exoenzymes of dermatophytes isolated from acute and chronic tinea] Revista latinoamericana de microbiologia, 36(1), 17–20.
  • Lyngdoh CJ, Lyngdoh WV, Choudhury B, Sangma KA, Bora I, Khyriem AB (2013) Clinico-mycological profile of dermatophytosis in Meghalaya Int J Med Public Health, 3:254–6.
  • Marques, S A, Robles, A M, Tortorano, A M, Tuculet, M A, Negroni, R, and Mendes, R P (2000) Mycoses associated with AIDS in the Third World Medical mycology, 38 Suppl 1, 269–279.
  • Matsumoto, T, and Ajello, L (1987) Current taxonomic concepts pertaining to the dermatophytes and related fungi International journal of dermatology, 26(8), 491–499
  • Molina de Diego A (2011) Aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos de las dermatofitosis [Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of dermatophytosis] Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica, 29 Suppl 3, 33–39.
  • Muhsin, T M, Aubaid, A H, and al-Duboon, A H (1997) Extracellular enzyme activities of dermatophytes and yeast isolates on solid media Mycoses, 40(11-12), 465–469.
  • Naveed, AM, Naeem, R and Nasiruddin (2009) Non- dermatophyte moulds and yeasts as causative agents in Onychomycosis Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists, 19(2), 74-78.
  • Noronha, T M, Tophakhane, R S, and Nadiger, S (2016) Clinico-microbiological study of dermatophytosis in a tertiary-care hospital in North Karnataka Indian dermatology online journal, 7(4), 264–271
  • Pal, M (2007) Veterinary and Medical Mycology1st Edition Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India, pp 266-271.
  • Philpot C M (1977) The use of nutritional tests for the differentiation of dermatophytes Sabouraudia,15(2),141–150
  • Pinto, E, Pina-Vaz, C, Salgueiro, L, Gonçalves, M J, Costa-de-Oliveira, S, Cavaleiro, C, Palmeira, A, Rodrigues, A, and Martinez-de-Oliveira, J (2006) Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species Journal of medical microbiology, 55(Pt 10), 1367–1373
  • Reiss E, Shadomy G H and Richmond J (2012) Fundamental Medical Mycology, Wiley-Blackwell, pp:530-539.
  • Rippon, JW (1988) The Pathogenic Fungi and Pathogenic Actinomycetes, 3rd Edition WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp1-797.
  • Siesenop, U, and Böhm, K H (1995) Comparative studies on keratinase production of Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains of animal origin Mycoses, 38(5-6), 205–209
  • Singh, S, and Beena, P M (2003) Profile of dermatophyte infections in Baroda Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology, 69(4), 281–283.
  • Sinha, S, & Sardana, K (2018) Antifungal Efficacy of Amphotericin B against Dermatophytes and its Relevance in Recalcitrant Dermatophytoses: A Commentary Indian dermatology online journal, 9(2), 120–122
  • Surendran, K, Bhat, R M, Boloor, R, Nandakishore, B, and Sukumar, D (2014) A clinical and mycological study of dermatophytic infections Indian journal of dermatology, 59(3), 262–267
  • Vander Straten, M R, Hossain, M A, and Ghannoum, M A (2003) Cutaneous infections dermatophytosis, onychomycosis, and tinea versicolor Infectious disease clinics of North America, 17(1), 87–112
  • Vander Straten, M R, Hossain, M A, and Ghannoum, M A (2003) Cutaneous infections dermatophytosis, onychomycosis, and tinea versicolor Infectious disease clinics of North America, 17(1), 87–112
  • Wagner, D K, and Sohnle, P G (1995) Cutaneous defenses against dermatophytes and yeasts Clinical microbiology reviews, 8(3), 317–335.
  • Wawrzkiewicz, K, Wolski, T, and Lobarzewski, J (1991) Screening the keratinolytic activity of dermatophytes in vitro Mycopathologia, 114(1), 1–8.
  • Weitzman, I, & Summerbell, R C (1995) The dermatophytes Clinical microbiology reviews, 8(2), 240–259.
  • White, T C, Oliver, B G, Gräser, Y, and Henn, M R (2008) Generating and testing molecular hypotheses in the dermatophytes Eukaryotic cell, 7(8), 1238–1245
  • Woodfolk J A (2005) Allergy and dermatophytes Clinical microbiology reviews, 18(1), 30–43


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.