Eurasian Journal of Biosciences

Investigation of interleukin 12 (IL-12) in graves’ disease of Iraqi patients by using ELIZA
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 2, pp. 4645-4648
  • Published Online: 30 Oct 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)


Cytokines are likely to play a vital role in autoimmune thyroid disease. These molecules, produced by both infiltrating inflammatory cells and thyroid follicular cells (TFC) Interleukin-12 was found to be an immunoregulatory cytokine, which may provide an important link between nonspecific immune mechanisms and the development of a specific T-cell-mediated immune response. The pathogenesis of Graves’ disease is thought to be related to TRAb (Thyroid receptor antibody and Thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]), which is commonly used as an immunological parameter. It is also conceivable that serum-soluble IL-12R (sIL-12R) is a marker of T-cell activation in various autoimmune diseases, and although many studies have found increased levels of serum sIL-12R in Graves’ disease, the role of IL-12 has not been investigated sufficiently.
Object: To investigate a role of IL-12 in Iraqi patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.
Subject and methods: This study comprised 45 patients there were 14 men and 31 women aged from 23 to 75 years old (average age, 47.11 years old).All patients had been clinically thyrotoxic, with diffusely enlarged thyroid glands,14 age and sex matched healthy subject with no case history of graves’ disease served as an impact group. The serum stored at -4°C for the quantitative assessment of IL-12 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique (Elabscience Human IL-12 ELISA kit).
Results: The levels of serum IL-12 were higher in the patients with Graves’ disease than those in the controls. The levels of serum IL-12 were significantly correlated with the levels of free T4 and TSH. On the other hand, there was no significant relationship between the levels of serum IL-12 and the level free T3 in the patients with Graves’ disease.
Conclusion: Measurement of the levels of serum IL-12 may be consider a useful immunological marker during the time course of treatment for Graves’ disease as an autoimmune disorder.


  • Del Prete G F, et al. (1986) ‘In vivo activated cytotoxic T cells in the thyroid infiltrate of patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis’, Clinical and experimental immunology, 65(1), pp. 140–147. Available at:
  • Halpern MD, Kurlander R J, and Pisetsky D S (1996) ‘Bacterial DNA Induces Murine Interferon-γ Production by Stimulation of Interleukin-12 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α’, Cellular Immunology, 167(1), pp. 72–78. doi:
  • Jones BM, Kwok J S Y and Kung A W C (2000) ‘Changes in Cytokine Production During Pregnancy in Patients with Graves’ Disease’, Thyroid. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 10(8), pp. 701–707. doi: 10.1089/10507250050137798.
  • Leonard J P, Waldburger K E, and Goldman S J (1995) ‘Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against interleukin 12’, The Journal of experimental medicine. The Rockefeller University Press, 181(1), pp. 381–386. doi: 10.1084/jem.181.1.381.
  • Murakami S. et al. (2005) ‘Serum Levels of Interleukin-12 in Graves’ Disease and Their Dynamic Changes After Surgery’, Surgery Today, 35(12), pp. 1016–1020. doi: 10.1007/s00595-005-3083-7.
  • Nagayama Y. et al. (2003) ‘Prevention of autoantibody-mediated Graves’-like hyperthyroidism in mice with IL-4, a Th2 cytokine.’, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). United States, 170(7), pp. 3522–3527. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.170.7.3522.
  • Neurath M F et al. (1995) ‘Antibodies to interleukin 12 abrogate established experimental colitis in mice.’, The Journal of experimental medicine, 182(5), pp. 1281–1290. doi: 10.1084/jem.182.5.1281.
  • Seder R A, Kelsall B L, and Jankovic D (1996) ‘Differential roles for IL-12 in the maintenance of immune responses in infectious versus autoimmune disease.’, The Journal of Immunology, 157(7), pp. 2745 LP – 2748. Available at:
  • Todd I, et al. (1985) ‘Interferon-gamma induces HLA-DR expression by thyroid epithelium’, Clinical and experimental immunology, 61(2), pp. 265–273. Available at:
  • Trembleau S, et al. (1995) ‘The role of IL-12 in the induction of organ-specific autoimmune diseases’, Immunology Today, 16(8), pp. 383–386. doi:
  • Trinchieri G. (1995) ‘Interleukin-12: a proinflammatory cytokine with immunoregulatory functions that bridge innate resistance and antigen-specific adaptive immunity.’, Annual review of immunology. United States, 13, pp. 251–276. doi: 10.1146/annurev.iy.13.040195.001343.
  • VARGAS F et al. (1994) Characterization of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression in thyroid follicular cells: Induction by cytokines and over expression in autoimmune glands’, Clinical & Experimental Immunology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 98(3), pp. 478–488. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.1994.tb05516.x.
  • Vidinov KN, Stoinov Y (2019) Do we really Need Lugol Solution in the Era of Energy Devices for the Preoperative Management of Patients with Graves’ Disease?. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Investigations, 10(4), em00730.
  • Weetman A P, and McGregor A M (1994) ‘Autoimmune thyroid disease: further developments in our understanding.’, Endocrine reviews. United States, 15(6), pp. 788–830. doi: 10.1210/edrv-15-6-788.
  • Zheng R Q et al. (1992) ‘Detection of in vivo production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human thyroid epithelial cells’, Immunology, 75(3), pp. 456–462. Available at:
  • Zipris D et al. (1996) ‘Cytokine gene expression in islets and thyroids of BB rats. IFN-gamma and IL-12p40 mRNA increase with age in both diabetic and insulin-treated nondiabetic BB rats.’, The Journal of Immunology, 156(3), pp. 1315 LP – 1321. Available at:


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.