Eurasian Journal of Biosciences

Effect of cigarette and water-pipe smoking on osteocalcin and RANKL serum levels among Iraqi university students
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 2, pp. 3025-3030
  • Published Online: 17 Sep 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)


Osteoporosis is most common skeleton illness characterized by low bone mass and increased bone fragility that putting patients at risk of fracture and smoking considered the most important environmental risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to assess osteocalcin and receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) levels in two smokers groups of university students. The first include 61 cigarette-smokers and the second include 64 cigarette/water-pipe smokers, as well as 70 non-smokers (control group). A significant reduction was seen in osteocalcin serum level especially in the second group as compared to non-smokers, while RANKL serum level was significantly elevated. The osteocalcin/RANKL ratio was also significantly decreased in cigarette-smokers. These effects were exaggerated in cigarette/water-pipe smokers. In conclusion, the two mediators; osteocalcin and RANKL, may be good predictors for the development of osteoporosis especially in young adults.


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