Background: Obesity in pregnancy is a chronic inflammatory condition that can damage the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to demonstrate the correlation of third trimester body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy weight gain in obese pregnant women to the expression of umbilical artery atherosclerotic markers and fetal outcomes.
Methods: The study was conducted on obese and non-obese pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy. An examination of atherosclerosis markers was conducted on fetal umbilical artery by immunohistochemistry technique using VCAM-1 and CD68 antibody. Fetal outcomes were examined as the measurement of infant birth weight and Apgar score of 1 minute and 5 minutes.
Results: There was strong correlation between third trimester BMI to VCAM-1 antibody expression (r = 0.903; p <0.001) and CD68 expression (r = 0.839; p <0.001) in umbilical artery cell. There were weak correlation and moderate correlation between weight gain during pregnancy with the expression of umbilical artery atherosclerosis markers VCAM-1 and CD68 antibody, respecetively (r = 0.324, p <0.001; r = 0.470, p <0.001; respectively). However, there was no correlation between third trimester BMI and pregnancy weight gain with neonatal birth weight and Apgar scores (p >0.05).
Conclusion: Third trimester BMI and weight gain in obese pregnant women affect the expression of atherosclerosis markers of VCAM-1 and CD68 antibody in umbilical artery cell.


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