Eurasian Journal of Biosciences

Abstract

The creation and cultivation of intensive varieties leads to the need to pay special attention to the protection of crops from biotic and abiotic adverse environmental factors. Adaptation of plants to new environmental conditions is achieved due to modification and genotypic variability, that is, by restructuring the complex of physiological, biochemical and morphoanatomical characteristics of the plant itself in ontogenesis and the formation of new reaction standards in phylogenesis. A prerequisite for adaptation should be the presence of such a norm of reaction for the genotype to changing environmental factors, which would determine various phenotypic modifications of a body, ensuring its viability in new conditions. More stable varieties most often have reduced productivity because of their reduced metabolic rate. However, production needs sustainable, environmentally plastic and highly productive varieties. It is possible to solve this problem by adaptive variety development that combine high-productivity genetic structures with the systems that ensure minimal yield losses from the effects of negative environmental factors. The study of plant intraspecific diversity resistance of the T. monococcum world collection by salt tolerance showed that this species is characterized by a small spectrum of salinity resistance. The samples with a high degree of salt tolerance were not observed. The number of intermediate forms in this species is much less than the number of sensitive genotypes. Thus, the laboratory analysis of 86 samples of T. monococcum of various ecological and geographical groups showed that T. monococcum is characterized by a significant variety of hereditary variants in terms of resistance to salt stress. The presence of such a huge intraspecific diversity allows us to select the forms contrasting by salt tolerance that are of interest for genetic and selection studies.

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